Amphibians are intermediate in some ways between the fully aquatic fishes and the terrestrial amniotes. However, they are not simply transition their morphology, life history, ecology and behavior. In the successful attainment independence from water and colonization of land amphibians have under gone a remarkable adaptive radiation and the living groups exhibit a greater diversity of modes of life history than any other group of vertebrates. Amphibian especially those that have left the water, generally inhabit environments that are hostile to their basic physiology because they are ectotherms (Poikilothermal) and have a permeable body covering they are more susceptible to the vicissitudes of the environment than any other tetrapods. Indian amphibians occur in varied ecological conditions from the planes to mountains, low to heavy rainfall area, from river beds to ponds and even in deserts. Some species prefer to stay permanently in water, a few live in bushes near water sources while others live under boulders rocks stones or under decaying logs. Several are arboreal or prefer crevices in rocks and tress among foliage and leaf litter or in losses soil.
Cellulosic material is an abundant renewable resource that can serve as substrate for production of chemicals, like fuel ethanol by enzymatic conversion. In this study: the synthesis of ethanol from lignocellulose biomass implementing different fermentation modes, the effects of hydrolysis (subcritical water and dilute acid) and severities on morphology and sugar release vs inhibitors yield, enzyme activities and substrate loadings onto the sugars, ethanol production and yield is reported. Besides that the size of the fermenting yeasts on the ethanol production and yield is reported. This study introduces a new lignocellulosic biomass, Melaleuca leucadendron, for biorefinery industry.
Aluminum extrusion finds extensive application in the construction, automobile and aerospace industries. Because of high pressures, elevated temperatures, complicated section geometries, and repeated mechanical and thermal stresses in the die and affiliated tooling, the process is quite complex. Process aberrations and tooling related problems directly contribute to extrusion defects and affect product quality. This monograph is based on a comprehensive investigation of the entire operation: deformation process, dies and tooling, and product defects. Following aspects of aluminum extrusion are discussed in detail: variation of extrusion pressure and its relationship to profile complexity, metal flow through the deformation chamber, modes and mechanisms of die failure, probabilistic study of die life and complexity, fracture toughness evaluation of die materials, simulation-based scheme for prediction of die life, defect morphology, mechanisms, and remedial measures, and statistical analysis of product defects in a typical large-size aluminum extrusion plant.
Supported lipid bilayers have been used as an artificial model of biological membranes and their interaction with 5 selected antimicrobial peptides was studied by several experimental techniques, mainly ellipsometry, laser scanning microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The work explains basic principles of the applied techniques focusing on their aspects relevant to characterization of lipid bilayers. The biological significance of antimicrobial peptides, their modes of interaction with membranes and the basic characteristics of the selected peptides are briefly discussed. The following text describes the main types of experimental studies performed and the interpretation of their results. Peptide-induced changes in lipid bilayer morphology were characterized by ellipsometry and laser scanning microscopy. Most interesting effects were observed in the case of melittin, which induced formation of long lipid tubules protruding from the bilayer. Lipid lateral diffusion measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy can provide information on bilayer organization on length-scales below resolution of optical microscopy.
This book presents and verifies the mathematical model of an electric field senor based on the whispering gallery mode (WGM). The sensing element is a dielectric microsphere, where the light is used to tune the optical modes of the microsphere. The light undergoes total internal reflection along the circumference of the sphere, then it experiences optical resonance. The WGM are monitored as sharp dips on the transmission spectrum. These modes are very sensitive to morphology changes of the sphere, such that, for every minute change in the sphere's morphology, a shift in the transmission spectrum will happen and that is known as WGM shifts. Due to the electrostriction effect, the applied electric field will induce forces acting on the surface of the dielectric sphere. In turn, these forces will deform the sphere causing shifts in its WGM spectrum. The applied electric field can be obtained by calculating these shifts. Navier's equation for linear elasticity is used to model the deformation of the sphere to find the WGM shift.The finite element numerical studies are performed to verify the introduced model and to study the behavior of the sensors.
The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on nano crystalline TiO2 exhibit high power conversion efficiency one of the most commonly substitutes for low cost solar-energy-conversion devices at high temperature. ZnO is another promising metal-oxide semiconductor that can be replace TiO2 because of its higher electronic mobility as compared to TiO2 and its energy level of conduction band is similar as in TiO2. Nanocrystalline particles of ZnO were prepared by sol gel method using mesoporous electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The anatase phase of ZnO has been confirmed using XRD. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been used to confirm the particle size of the ZnO nano particles. The coating of natural dyes extracted from spinach and marry gold has been done on ZnO nano particles. The Scanning Electron Microscope and EDX study reveals the morphology and elemental composition of the pure and natural dye coated ZnO nano particles. Tauc's plot confirmed decrease in band gap of ZnO nanoparticles with natural dye coating. Raman scattering spectra reveal active phonon modes for all of the synthesized samples. The natural dye coated nano particles are found to be better.
This book collects the contributions presented at the international congress held at the University of Bologna in January 2007, where leading scholars of different persuasions and interests offered an up-to-date overview of the current status of the research on linguistic universals. The papers that make up the volume deal with both theoretical and empirical issues, and range over various domains, covering not only morphology and syntax, which were the major focus of Greenberg's seminal work, but also phonology and semantics, as well as diachrony and second language acquisition. Diverse perspectives illustrate and discuss a huge number of phenomena from a wide variety of languages, not only exploring the way research on universals - tersects with different subareas of linguistics, but also contributing to the ongoing debate between functional and formal approaches to explaining the universals of language. This stimulating reading for scientists, researchers and postgraduate students in linguistics shows how different, but not irreconcilable, modes of explanation can complement each other, both offering fresh insights into the investigation of unity and diversity in languages, and pointing to exciting areas for future research. - A fresh and up-to-date survey of the present state of research on Universals of Language in an international context, with original contributions from leading specialists in the eld. - First-hand accounts of substantive ndings and theoretical observations in diff- ent subareas of linguistics. - Huge number of linguistic phenomena and data from diffferent languages a- lyzed and discussed in detail.
Interest in structures with nanometer-length features has significantly increased as experimental techniques for their fabrication have become possible. The study of phenomena in this area is termed nanoscience, and is a research focus of chemists, pure and applied physics, electrical engineers, and others. The reason for such a focus is the wide range of novel effects that exist at this scale, both of fundamental and practical interest, which often arise from the interaction between metallic nanostructures and light, and range from large electromagnetic field enhancements to extraordinary optical transmission of light through arrays of subwavelength holes.This dissertation is aimed at addressing some of the most fundamental and outstanding questions in nanoscience from a theoretical and computational perspective, specifically:· At the single nanoparticle level, how well do experimental and classical electrodynamics agree?· What is the detailed relationship between optical response and nanoparticle morphology, composition, and environment?· Does an optimal nanostructure exist for generating large electromagnetic field enhancements, and is there a fundamental limit to this?· Can nanostructures be used to control light, such as confining it, or causing fundamentally different scattering phenomena to interact, such as electromagnetic surface modes and diffraction effects?· Is it possible to calculate quantum effects using classical electrodynamics, and if so, how do they affect optical properties?
Cellulosic material is an abundant renewable resource that can serve as substrate for production of chemicals, like fuel ethanol by enzymatic conversion. In this study: the synthesis of ethanol from lignocellulose biomass implementing different fermentation modes; the effects of hydrolysis (subcritical water and dilute acid) and severities on morphology and sugar release vs inhibitors yield; enzyme activities and substrate loadings onto the sugars, ethanol production and yield is reported. Besides that the size of the fermenting yeasts on the ethanol production and yield is reported. This study introduces a new lignocellulosic biomass, Melaleuca leucadendron, for biorefinery industry.