Modes and Mechanisms of Microbial Growth Inhibitors ab 138.99 € als Taschenbuch: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1983. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Wissenschaft, Biologie,
Modes and Mechanisms of Microbial Growth Inhibitors ab 138.99 EURO Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1983
Cellulosic material is an abundant renewable resource that can serve as substrate for production of chemicals, like fuel ethanol by enzymatic conversion. In this study: the synthesis of ethanol from lignocellulose biomass implementing different fermentation modes, the effects of hydrolysis (subcritical water and dilute acid) and severities on morphology and sugar release vs inhibitors yield, enzyme activities and substrate loadings onto the sugars, ethanol production and yield is reported. Besides that the size of the fermenting yeasts on the ethanol production and yield is reported. This study introduces a new lignocellulosic biomass, Melaleuca leucadendron, for biorefinery industry.
Spodoptera litura causes enormous losses in many economically important crops. Three years monitoring of conventional and new chemistry insecticides revealed chlorpyrifos, quinalphos, deltamethrin, -cyfluthrin, emamectin and indoxacarb more toxic than other insecticides against most field populations. Cypermethrin and deltamethrin with fipronil showed synergistic effect both at 1:1 and 1:10 in field populations. However, these populations were highly antagonistic to organophosphates when mixed with synthetic pyrethroids. Using single pair crosses for genetics studies, deltamethrin and indoxacarb showed autosomal and incompletely dominant resistance controlled by more than one locus. Enzyme inhibitors i.e., PBO and DEF were significantly not different for both field populations suggesting involvement of both mechanism of resistance. Timely judgment of pest status, delimiting alternate host crops and weeds, wise rotation of insecticides with new chemicals and insect growth regulators with synergistic mixtures might be an asset for management of this insect pest. Stability and dominance of resistance and cross-resistance suggest use of insecticides with different modes of action.
The kinetic mechanisms by which enzymes interact with inhibitors and activators, collectively called modifiers, are scrutinized and ranked taxonomically into autonomous species in a way similar to that used in the biological classification of plants and animals. The systematization of the mechanisms is based on two fundamental characters: the allosteric linkage between substrate and modifier and the factor by which a modifier affects the catalytic constant of the enzyme. Combinations of the physically significant states of these two characters in an ancestor-descendant-like fashion reveal the existence of seventeen modes of interaction that cover the needs of total, partial and fine-tuning modulation of enzyme activity. These interactions comprise five linear and five hyperbolic inhibition mechanisms, five nonessential activation mechanisms and two hybrid species that manifest either hyperbolic inhibition or nonessential activation characteristics depending on substrate concentration. Five essential activation mechanisms, which are taxonomically independent of the mentioned basic species, complete the inventory of enzyme modifiers. Often masked under conventional umbrella terms or treated as anomalous cases, all seventeen basic inhibition and nonessential activation mechanisms are represented in the biochemical and pharmacological literature of this and the past century, either in the form of rapid or slow-onset reversible interactions, or as irreversible modification processes.The full potential of enzyme inhibitors and activators can only be appreciated after elucidating the details of their kinetic mechanisms of action exploring the entire range of physiologically significant reactant concentrations. This book highlights the wide spectrum of allosteric enzyme modification in physiological occurrences as well as in pharmacological and biotechnological applications that embrace simple and multiple enzyme-modifier interactions. The reader is guided in the journey through this still partly uncharted territory with the aid of mechanistically-oriented criteria aimed at showing the logical way towards the identification of a particular mechanism.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that are involved in many physiological and pathological processes. The field of MMP research is very important due to the implications of the distinct paralogs in both human physiology and pathology. Over-activation of these enzymes results in tissue degradation, producing a wide array of disease processes such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, tumor growth and metastasis, multiple sclerosis, congestive heart failure, and others. Thus MMP inhibitors are candidates for therapeutic agents to combat a number of diseases.The present book discusses the design and development of different classes of inhibitors of important classes of MMPs, such as gelatinases and collagenases. The articles focus specifically on structure-activity relationships of all classes of compounds and on their modes of action and specificity of binding with the receptors based on experimental and theoretical studies. These studies constitute a valuable asset for all those involved in drug development.
The future of insect control looked very bright in the 1950s and 1960s with new insecticides constantly coming onto the market. Today, however, whole classes of pesticide chemistry have fallen by the wayside due to misuse which generated resistance problems reaching crisis proportions, severe adverse effects on the environment, and public outcry that has led to increasingly stricter regulation and legislation. It is with this background, demanding the need for safer, environmentally friendly pesticides and new strategies to reduce resistance problems, that this book was written. The authors of the various chapters have a wealth of experience in pesticide chemistry, biochemical modes of action, mechanism of resistance and application, and have presented concise reviews. Each is actively involved in thedevelopment of new groups of pesticide chemistry which led to the development of novel insecticides with special impact in controlling agricultural pests. Emphasis has been given to insecticides with selective properties, such as insect growth regulators hormone mimics, ecdysone agonists), (chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile chloronicotinyl insecticides (imidacloprid, acetamiprid), botanical insecticides (neem, plant oils), pymetrozine, diafenthiuron, pyrrole insecticides, and others. The importance of these compounds, as components in integrated pest management programs and in insecticide resistance management strategies, is discussed. The data presented are essential in establishing new technologies and developing novel groups of compounds which will have impact on our future agricultural practices.
This volume comprehensively covers the multiplicity and diversity of mechanisms underlying patient resistance to currently approved anti-cancer drugs, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, blockers of growth factor receptors and their downstream pathways, which play essential functions in cancer progression. Each chapter will cover a specific group of targets and the cognate drugs, along with molecular modes of innate and evolving resistance.
Cellulosic material is an abundant renewable resource that can serve as substrate for production of chemicals, like fuel ethanol by enzymatic conversion. In this study: the synthesis of ethanol from lignocellulose biomass implementing different fermentation modes; the effects of hydrolysis (subcritical water and dilute acid) and severities on morphology and sugar release vs inhibitors yield; enzyme activities and substrate loadings onto the sugars, ethanol production and yield is reported. Besides that the size of the fermenting yeasts on the ethanol production and yield is reported. This study introduces a new lignocellulosic biomass, Melaleuca leucadendron, for biorefinery industry.